Statue of King Charles IX of Sweden.
Charles IX (Swedish: Karl IX) (4 October 1550 30 October 1611), was King of Swden from 1604 until his death. He was the youngest son of King Gustav of Swden and his second wife, Margaret Leijonhufvud, brother of Eric XIV and John III of Sweden, and uncle of Sigmund III Vasa King of both Sweden and Poland. Charles's short reign was one of uninterrupted warfare. The hostility of Poland and the break up of Russia involved him in two overseas contests for the possession of Livonia and Ingria, while his pretensions to claim Lappland brought upon him a war with Denmark in the last year of his reign.
In all these struggles, he was more or less unsuccessful, owing partly to the fact that he and his forces had to oppose superior generals (e.g.Jan Karol Chodkiewicz and Christian IV of Denmark and partly to sheer ill-luck.
Four and a half years later Charles IX died at Nyköping, 30 October 1611 when he was succeeded by his seventeen year old son Gustavus the Great, who'd participated in the wars. As a ruler, he is the link between his great father and his still greater son.
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